Rationale for the selective administration of tranexamic acid to inhibit fibrinolysis in the severely injured patient


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Abstract

Postinjury fibrinolysis can manifest as three distinguishable phenotypes: 1) hyperfibrinolysis, 2) physiologic, and 3) hypofibrinolysis (shutdown). Hyperfibrinolysis is associated with uncontrolled bleeding due to clot dissolution; whereas, fibrinolysis shutdown is associated with organ dysfunction due to microvascular occlusion. The incidence of fibrinolysis phenotypes at hospital arrival in severely injured patients is: 1) hyperfibrinolysis 18%, physiologic 18%, and shutdown 64%. The mechanisms responsible for dysregulated fibrinolysis following injury remain uncertain. Animal work suggests hypoperfusion promotes fibrinolysis, while tissue injury inhibits fibrinolysis. Clinical experience is consistent with these observations. The predominant mediator of postinjury hyperfibrinolysis appears to be tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) released from ischemic endothelium. The effects of tPA are accentuated by impaired hepatic clearance. Fibrinolysis shutdown, on the other hand, may occur from inhibition of circulating tPA, enhanced clot strength impairing the binding of tPA and plasminogen to fibrin, or the inhibition of plasmin. Plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) binding of circulating tPA appears to be a major mechanism for postinjury shutdown. The sources of PAI-1 include endothelium, platelets, and organ parenchyma. The laboratory identification of fibrinolysis phenotype, at this moment, is best determined with viscoelastic hemostatic assays (TEG, ROTEM). While D-dimer and plasmin antiplasmin (PAP) levels corroborate fibrinolysis, they do not provide real-time assessment of the circulating blood capacity. Our clinical studies indicate that fibrinolysis is a very dynamic process and our experimental work suggests plasma first resuscitation reverses hyperfibrinolysis. Collectively, we believe recent clinical and experimental work suggest antifibrinolytic therapy should be employed selectively in the acutely injured patient, and optimally guided by TEG or ROTEM.

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