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In general, syncope in children and adolescents is a benign event. Syncope during exercise may identify patients with a potentially fatal condition. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is characterized by life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, usually polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, occurring under conditions of exercise or emotional stress. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a familial condition that presents with exercise-induced syncope or sudden death in children or young adults. Detailed evaluation should be considered for patients who have syncope during exercise, injure themselves during the fall (i.e., unprotected faint with no antecedent warning prodrome), or who have a family history of syncope, early sudden cardiac death, myocardial disease, or arrhythmias.