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Although immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation is paramount for long-term outcomes, patients do not comply with their immunosuppressive treatment as much as might be expected. In this observational study, patients having undergone a kidney or liver transplantation were enrolled. Adherence was evaluated by patients using the compliance evaluation test and by physicians using a visual analogic scale. A linear regression was performed to identify determinants of adherence. Less patients having undergone kidney transplantation (27%) described themselves as good compliers than liver transplanted patients (40%). Discrepancy was noted between the physician and patient assessments. Rates of good adherence were significantly different depending on gender, age at transplantation, retransplantation, and time elapsed since transplantation, in at least one of the groups evaluated (whole cohort, kidney liver transplantation groups). In all three groups, adherence decreased with the number of immunosuppressants prescribed. In the whole cohort, the rate of good adherence was significantly higher in patients taking lower number of immunosuppressive drugs (45% for 1 vs. 24% for 3 immunosuppressants; p = 0.02). In this study, which is the first study of this scale in France, we confirmed that adherence with immunosuppressant treatment was low and that simpler treatment regimens may favor adherence.