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Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure for end-stage liver disease. In liver transplant recipients, morbid obesity influences post-operative survival and graft function. In 1996, our patient underwent a successful liver transplantation because of a HCV-related liver failure (body mass index (BMI) 31). Follow-up showed a functional graft and the development of severe obesity up to a BMI of 61 in January 2006. In January 2007, he was submitted to intragastric balloon therapy for 6 months, reaching a BMI of 54. In September 2007, he underwent a biliopancreatic diversion. During follow-up to March 2008, he reached a BMI of 42 with ameliorations of comorbidities. In May 2008, during a hospital admission, he suddenly died of a heart attack. Post mortem study revealed a myocardial infarction. This is the first world case report for this approach. According to our opinion, patient's death was not related to bariatric surgery.