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Studies suggest a possible antiscarring effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) during wound healing. However, little is known about the precise pathological mechanisms of bFGF. In particular, there is only limited information available about the mechanism of exogenous administration of bFGF to scar formation. To investigate the effect of bFGF on the hypertrophic scar in the rabbit ear model and to clarify the mechanisms of bFGF on treatment for scar in wound healing, the rabbit ear model of wound healing was created and treated topically with bFGF once daily for 3 months; then we examined the changes of macroscopic and histopathological characteristics of scars and the expression of collagen and collagenase-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1). The results of macroscopic and histologic characteristics revealed a significant difference between scars treated with bFGF and control scars. The expression of collagen in the scars treated with bFGF was decreased, as compared with the scars treated with saline. Further study revealed that bFGF could remarkably enhance expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1. bFGF could improve the quality of wound healing and remarkably alleviate the scar in the rabbit ear model in wound healing, which suggests that bFGF exerted a net negative effecton scar formation in wound healing. The evidence should contribute to a better understanding of the biological activities of bFGF during hypertrophic scar formation.