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Machine perfusion (MP) has been used as the kidney preservation method in our center for over 10 years. The first, small (n = 74) prospective, single-blinded randomized study comparing MP and Cold Storage (CS) showed that the incidence of delayed graft function was higher after CS. There have been no reports in the literature on the effect of storage modality on long-term function of renal allografts. This paper presents an analysis of long-term results of renal transplantation in 415 patients operated on between 1994 and 1999. Of those, 227 kidneys were MP-stored prior to KTx. The control group consisted of 188 CS kidney transplants. Kidneys were not randomized to MP or to CS. Donor demographics, medical and biochemical data, cold ischemia time, HLA match and recipient data were collected. Standard triple-drug immunosuppression was administered to both groups. Mortality, graft survival and incidence of return to hemodialysis treatment were analyzed. Despite longer cold ischemia time and poorer donor hemodynamics in MP group, 5-year Kaplan-Meier graft survival was better in MP-stored than in CS-stored kidneys (68.2% vs. 54.2%, p = 0.02). Conclusion: In this nonrandomized analysis, kidney storage by MP improved graft survival and reduced the number of patients who returned to dialysis.