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Initial presentation of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) as primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare. We report a case with NHL, who was initially presented with pleural effusion and pleural thickening. Our patients at first received intensive treatment of broad spectrum antibiotics for 10 days with no change in the clinical status, and then were diagnosed with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma with the examination of pleural fluid by using cytologic and flow cytometric methods, and treated with LMT89 group B treatment protocol. Our case points out the necessity for considering the NHL within the differential diagnosis of any pediatric patient presenting with sterile pleural effusion and pleural thickening who does not respond to antimicrobial therapy.