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We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with a mediastinal mass, severe anemia, leukocytosis and neutropenia, in whom, after initial suspicion of metastatic neuroblastoma, a final diagnosis of concurrent ganglioneuroblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia was made. The mediastinal tumor was surgically excised and the child subsequently underwent chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient remains in complete remission from both diseases 4 years after the diagnosis and 24 months after completion of all treatment. The simultaneous occurrence of 2 different neoplasms in a child is very infrequent, and no comparable cases are reported in the literature.