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Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a common hematological disorder in the childhood, and it is one of the most common forms of autoimmune disease in pediatric patients. The ITP basis is a primary dysfunction of the immune system. This study aimed to analyze the genetic polymorphisms of the Fcγ receptors IIA and IIIA. The genetic polymorphisms of the Fc receptors γIIA (131H/R) and γRIIIA (158V/F) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated by χ2 test. Homozygous polymorphic genotype for the FcγRIIIA was significantly more frequent among patients compared with controls (odds ratio=0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.80; P=0.03). There was no statistical difference between the ITP group and the controls in the analysis of combinations of alleles of the high-affinity Fc receptor, but the ITP individuals with this combination had a lower duration of disease (P=0.01). Genetic polymorphisms in immune system genes can be important for ITP pathogenesis and disease outcome.