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Hereditary persistence of α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a rare but benign condition.A 13-year-old girl presented with dysmenorrhoic complaints and irregular cycles. Diagnostic workup revealed a cystic lesion of the ovary and elevated AFP; β-human chorionic gonadotrophin was negative. Right-sided ovarectomy was performed. Postsurgery AFP concentration did not decline. The patient underwent further diagnostic workup with negative results. Histology revealed follicular cysts but no tumor. Finally, hereditary persistence of AFP was suspected and AFP testing was performed in the family.It is important to include hereditary persistence of AFP in the differential diagnosis of elevated AFP concentrations to avoid harmful procedures.