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The authors investigated the risks of negative reproductive outcome among female hairdressers.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1997–1999, and 16,907 women in their forties were invited (response 71%). Information on infertility, delayed conception, spontaneous abortions, smoking, education, and occupation was collected.Infertility and spontaneous abortion were higher among female hairdressers than among women in other occupations (adjusted relative risks = 1.30; 95% confidence intervals = 1.08 to 1.55 and 1.31; 1.07 to 1.60, respectively). There was a significant interaction between work and smoking habits. Smoking increased the risk of infertility among women in other occupations, but this was not found among hairdressers.Female hairdressers have an increased risk of infertility and spontaneous abortions that might be due to their occupational chemical exposure. The risk was primarily found among never smokers.