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To assess the association of sleep characteristics and mental health with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in law enforcement officers (LEOs).Sleep duration (≤6, >6–<8, ≥8 hours/night), sleep quality (“good,” “poor”), mental health (stress, burnout, depression), and MetS components were compared in 106 LEOs.The prevalence of MetS was 33%. After covariate adjustment including the mental health measures, long sleep duration was associated with MetS (odds ratio = 4.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.32 to 18.13), whereas sleep quality was not. LEOs with short sleep duration or poor sleep quality reported more stress, burnout, and depression symptoms.In LEOs, sleep duration is more strongly associated with the occurrence of MetS than sleep quality, independent of mental health. Nevertheless, short sleep duration and poor sleep quality may affect mental health in LEOs.