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The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process.This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production.At present, there are two main technological challenges for the process—to reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A future step may be carbon dioxide gas capture and sequestration related to the electric power generation from fossil sources.Workers' health and safety have now become an integrated part of the aluminum business. Work-related injuries and illnesses are preventable, and the ultimate goal to eliminate accidents with lost-time injuries may hopefully be approached in the future.