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Data are limited on temporal trends in outcomes of hospitalization and surgery in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Thus, we evaluated the U.S. nationwide temporal trends for incidence of hospitalization and intestinal resection along with associated resource utilization.We used the Kids' Inpatient Database (1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009) to identify all admissions for children aged 18 years or younger with a primary CD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9]: 555.X) or UC (ICD-9: 556.X) diagnosis or a secondary CD or UC diagnosis and procedural code of intestinal resection. Poisson regression analysis was performed to evaluate time trends in the incidence of hospitalization, intestinal resection, and hospital resource utilization.The annual incidence of hospitalization was 5.7 and 3.5 per 100,000 children for CD and UC, respectively, with significant increases over time for CD (annual percent increase [API], 3.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0%–4.5%) and UC (API, 4.5%; 95% CI, 4.3%–4.7%). Median hospital days per hospitalization for CD and UC remained stable, whereas median charge per hospitalization increased for CD (API, 4.1%; 95% CI, 2.6%–5.6%) and UC (API, 4.7%; 95% CI, 3.5%–5.9%). The annual incidence of intestinal resection remained stable for UC at 0.6 per 100,000 children but climbed for CD (API, 2.1%; 95% CI, 0.1–4.2).The annual incidence of hospitalization is climbing in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases, accompanied by rising intestinal resection rates for CD and stable colectomy rates for UC. With escalating resource utilization, the economic and health burden of pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases is substantial.