Intraoperative 2D and 3D transoesophageal echocardiographic predictors of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation


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Abstract

BackgroundPost-procedural aortic regurgitation (AR) has been described in a large number of patients receiving transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the intraoperative 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic features of the aortic valve associated with significant post-procedural paravalvular AR.MethodsA total of 135 patients (81±7 years) with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, who underwent TAVI, were imaged with comprehensive 2D and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography before the procedure and peri-procedure. Various baseline and peri-procedural echocardiographic characteristics were tested to predict paravalvular AR post-TAVI: calcifications at the aortic valve commissures and leaflets, ‘aortic annulus eccentricity index’, ‘area cover index’, overlap between aortic prosthesis and anterior mitral leaflet. Post-procedural paravalvular AR≥2 was considered significant.ResultsSuccessful TAVI was achieved in all patients. The incidence of paravalvular AR≥2 immediately after the procedure was 21% (28 patients). Commissural calcifications and, particularly, the calcification of the commissure between the right coronary and non-coronary cusps was significantly more frequent in presence of paravalvular AR; the area cover index pre-TAVI was significantly lower among patients with AR (11.1±11.8% vs 20.8±12.5%, p=0.0004). Multivariate analysis revealed that calcification of the commissure between the right coronary and non-coronary cusps (OR=2.66, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.12, p=0.001), and the area cover index pre-TAVI (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99, p=0.006) were the only independent predictors of significant paravalvular AR after TAVI.ConclusionsIntraoperative 2D and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography identified calcification of the commissure between the right coronary and non-coronary cusps and the area cover index as independent predictors of significant paravalvular AR following TAVI.

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