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We examined the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual defining criteria on all-cause mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. We used data from 567 HIV-infected participants of the Nutrition for Healthy Living study with study visits between 9/1/2000 and 1/31/2004 and determined mortality through 12/31/2006. MS was defined using modified National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Cox proportional hazards for all-cause mortality were estimated for baseline MS status and for its individual defining criteria. There were 83 deaths with median follow-up of 63 months. Baseline characteristics associated with increased risk of mortality were: older age in years (univariate hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, p<0.01), current smoking (HR 1.99, p = 0.02), current heroin use (HR 1.97, p = 0.02), living in poverty (HR 2.0, p < 0.01), higher mean HIV viral load (HR 1.81, p < 0.01), and having a BMI < 18 (HR 5.84, p < 0.01). For MS and its criteria, only low HDL was associated with increased risk of mortality on univariate analysis (HR 1.84, p = 0.01). However, metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 2.31, p = 0.02) and high triglycerides (adjusted HR 3.97, p<0.01) were significantly associated with mortality beyond 36 months follow-up. MS, low HDL, and high triglycerides are associated with an increased risk of mortality in HIV-infected individuals.