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The role of glycemic index on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors received considerable attention in light of the current increase in cardiometabolic disorders. We aimed to deal and identify the recently published prospective epidemiological studies as well as randomized controlled studies investigating the associations of metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic index. The main prospective studies and meta-analysis grouping the recent prospective and clinical interventions are discussed.Recently, during the last few years, evidence exists that high glycemic index/glycemic load diets contribute to risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, low glycemic index/glycemic load diets were found to be effective in the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders.The use of the low glycemic index notion in the dietary recommendations for children, adolescents and adults might play a role in the prevention, and or treatment, of metabolic diseases and their cardiovascular complications.