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To identify sociodemographic, sexual, and health behavioural and attitudinal factors associated with reporting sexual function problems.A probability sample survey of 11 161 men and women aged 16–44 years resident in Britain in 2000. Data collected by a combination of computer assisted face to face and self interviewing. Outcomes were self report of a range of sexual function problems, considered as “any problems” (1+ lasting 1+ months in the past year) and “persistent problems” (1+ lasting 6+ months in the past year), and associations with sociodemographic, behavioural, and attitudinal variables.Both “any” and “persistent” sexual function problems were more commonly reported by women than men. A variety of sociodemographic factors were associated with both measures but differed by gender. For example, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for reporting any problems for married v single respondents was 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.87)v 1.31 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.56) for men and women, respectively. Sexual behaviours significantly associated with reporting sexual function problems included competence at first sex, paying for sex in the past 5 years, number of occasions of sex and masturbation, both in the past 4 weeks. For men (only), reporting STI diagnosis(es) was significantly associated with reporting “any” problems (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.2) and “persistent” problems (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9). Both measures were significantly more likely among men and women who reported communication difficulties with their partners, with AORs in excess of 1.9.Sexual fulfilment is an important part of sexual health. Understanding factors associated with reporting sexual problems, and recognising that such factors maybe partnership specific, is an important step towards improving our understanding of sexual function and thus improving the provision of care and support available.