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The rates and risk factors for overall and medical condition-specific hospitalizations in HIV-positive women have not been examined in detail or compared with rates in risk factormatched HIV-negative women.To determine the rates and risk factors for overall and condition-specific hospitalizations.Prospective cohort study of 885 HIV-positive women and 425 HIV-negative women followed for semiannual research visits between 1993 and 2000 in 4 urban locations in the United States. Outcome measures were hospitalization diagnoses with diabetes mellitus, nonacute renal conditions, cardiovascular conditions, liver conditions, AIDS defining conditions, and overall hospitalizations. Clinical and laboratory risk factors were assessed at research visits every 6 months, and effects of risk factors on hospitalization rates were calculated using generalized estimating equations and Poisson regression.Renal laboratory abnormalities, hypertension, and clinical AIDS were each associated with 3 of the 5 condition-specific hospitalization rates. Over time, diabetes-, nonacute renal-, and cardiovascular-related rates were flat or slightly increased and liver-related rates were significantly increased in HIV-positive women. Hospitalization rates with an AIDS-defining condition declined sharply in the latter half of the study period.In this population of largely African-American, inner-city, HIV-infected women, renal abnormalities, hypertension, and hepatitis C virus infection were common. Rate ratios indicated that “non-AIDS” risk factors were important predictors of hospitalization. In the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, clinicians must pay attention to these risk factors for morbidity and should closely monitor renal abnormalities, hypertension, and hepatitis status.