Predictors of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome–Associated With Kaposi Sarcoma in Mozambique: A Prospective Study

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Background:The impact and relevance of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome-associated with Kaposi sarcoma (IRIS-KS) has not been assessed in sub-Saharan African countries, where the bulk of HIV-1 and KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) coinfection occurs. Understanding the risk factors for developing IRIS-KS would aid in the identification and in the improvement of clinical management for high-risk patients.Methods:Sixty-nine consecutive HIV-1 and KSHV coinfected Mozambican adults initiating cART were prospectively followed for development of IRIS-KS over 10 months as part of a larger prospective observational study. Plasma HIV RNA, CD4+ counts, anti-KSHV lytic antibodies, and plasma KSHV DNA viral load were assessed at the pre-cART visit and at 4 and 10 months after cART initiation. A survival analysis was performed to assess potential risk factors for developing IRIS-KS.Results:During the first 10 months of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), 8 patients (8/69, 11.6%) experienced IRIS-KS at a median time of 13.8 weeks after cART initiation. Multivariate analysis identified 4 independent IRIS-KS predictors: clinical pretreatment KS [hazard ratio (HR) 91.7], detectable plasma KSHV DNA (HR 24.4), hematocrit <30% (HR 26.5), and plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (HR 34.6 per log viral load increase). Treatment with either cART alone or with a combination of cART and systemic chemotherapy led to partial or complete clinical response in 62.5% (5/8) of IRIS-KS cases.Conclusions:This study identified 4 independent predictors of IRIS-KS, which may help to develop screening tools aiding in the identification of patients at high risk of IRIS-KS for whom close clinical supervision is warranted.

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