|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Women with HIV face an increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) acquisition and persistence, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive cervical cancer. Our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of different cervical cancer screening strategies among women with HIV in South Africa.We modified a mathematical model of HPV infection and cervical disease to reflect coinfection with HIV. The model was calibrated to epidemiologic data from HIV-infected women in South Africa. Clinical and economic data were drawn from in-country data sources. The model was used to project reductions in the lifetime risk of cervical cancer and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of Pap and HPV DNA screening and management algorithms beginning at HIV diagnosis, at 1-, 2-, or 3-year intervals. Strategies with an ICER below South Africa's 2016 per capita gross domestic product (US$5270) were considered “cost-effective.”HPV testing followed by treatment (test-and-treat) at 2-year intervals was the most effective strategy that was also cost-effective, reducing lifetime cancer risk by 56.6% with an ICER of US$3010 per year of life saved. Other cost-effective strategies included Pap (referral threshold: HSIL+) at 1-, 2-, and 3-year intervals, and HPV test-and-treat at 3-year intervals. Pap (ASCUS+), HPV testing with 16/18 genotyping, and HPV testing with Pap or visual triage of HPV-positive women were less effective and more costly than alternatives.Considering per capita gross domestic product as the benchmark for cost-effectiveness, HPV test-and-treat is optimal in South Africa. At lower cost-effectiveness benchmarks, Pap (HSIL+) would be optimal.