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Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is used in the assessment of chronic illness. Regarding HIV infection, HRQL assessment is an objective for physicians and institutions since antiretroviral treatment delays HIV clinical progression. The aim of this study was to determine the factors with the most influence on HRQL in HIV-infected people and to create a predictive model.We conducted a cross-sectional study in 150 patients in a tertiary hospital. HRQL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. The research team created a specific template with which to gather clinical and sociodemographic data. Adherence was assessed using the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ) and depression data were obtained using the Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) inventory. Logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of HRQL.HIV-related symptoms and presence of depression were found to be negatively associated with all the MOS-HIV domains, the Physical Health summary score and the Mental Health summary score. Patients receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-based treatment had lower scores in four of the 11 domains of the MOS-HIV questionnaire. Gender, hospitalization in the year before enrolment, depression and parenthood were independently related to the Physical Health Score; depression and hepatitis C virus coinfection were related to the Mental Health Score.Optimization of HRQL is particularly important now that HIV infection can be considered a chronic disease with the prospect of long-term survival. Quality of life should be monitored in follow-up of HIV-infected patients. The assessment of HRQL in this population can help us to detect problems that may influence the progression of the disease. This investigation highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to HIV infection.