(−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces Du145 prostate cancer cell death via downregulation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2, a dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein


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Abstract

(−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major polyphenol components in green tea. It effectively induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. The anticancer effect of this reagent is appealing because it is a natural component of a popular daily beverage that has proven harmless for thousands of years, making it a good candidate chemopreventive agent. EGCG suppresses cell growth and causes cell death, but the mechanisms are not well characterized, especially in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. In the present study, using Affymetrix genechip Hu133 2.0, we analyzed the gene expression patterns of the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line Du145, treated with or without EGCG, and found 40 genes whose expression levels were altered (>twofold, either upregulated or downregulated,P<0.01) upon treatment with EGCG. These gene products are involved in the functions of transcription, RNA processing, protein folding, phosphorylation, protein degradation, cell motility, and ion transport. Among them, inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2), known as a dominant anti-retinoblastoma (Rb) helix-loop-helix protein, was found to be downregulated fourfold by EGCG treatment. Forced expression of ID2 in Du145 cells reduced apoptosis and increased cell survival in the presence of EGCG, and knockdown ID2 expression in Du145 cells using a morpholino oligonucleotide specific for ID2 mimicked the apoptosis effect generated by EGCG treatment, although it was milder. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that ID2 is one of the critical factors in the signaling pathway of Du145 cell death induced by EGCG.

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