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This review provides an update on the WHO/UNAIDS Treatment 2.0 strategy by reviewing the documents and technical updates issued under the initiative. Launched in 2010, this global initiative provides a framework for the continued scale-up of access to HIV care and treatment.WHO has prioritized once daily fixed-dose combination as the preferred antiretroviral (ARV) regimen to initiate HIV treatment, paving the way for programmatic simplification, with reduced toxicity and improved adherence. WHO also recommends the use of point-of-care diagnostics, with CD4 cell count technologies being implemented in the field and progress towards improving access to simplified viral load testing. The strategy also seeks mechanisms that can contribute to reducing treatment costs, such as pooled commodity procurement and public health-oriented licensing approaches. Improved service delivery, specifically through decentralization, task shifting, integration and community mobilization also has the potential to reduce costs and improve access. Support to countries has been provided through the timely release of a series of programmatic and technical updates on specific treatment-related topics.The Treatment 2.0 strategy articulates how innovation and greater efficiency can make HIV care and treatment more accessible and affordable, and guide treatment and prevention scale-up.