Drug use as a driver of HIV risks: re-emerging and emerging issues

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Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the studies published in 2012–2013 that focused on re-emerging and emerging injection and noninjection drug use trends driving HIV risk behaviors and transmission in some parts of the world.Recent findingsAlthough HIV incidence has declined in many countries, HIV epidemics remain at troubling levels among key drug-using populations, including females who inject drugs (FWIDs), FWIDs who trade sex, sex partners of people who inject drugs, young people who inject drugs, and people who use noninjection drugs in a number of low-income and middle-income countries such as in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa.SummaryHIV epidemics occur within the contexts of global economic and political forces, including poverty, human rights violations, discrimination, drug policies, trafficking, and other multilevel risk environments. Trends of injection and noninjection drug use and risk environments driving HIV epidemics in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa call for political will to improve HIV and substance use service delivery, access to combination HIV prevention, and harm reduction programs.

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