Hierarchy of regional oxygen delivery during cardiopulmonary bypass

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Background.Relative to the nonbypass state, cardiopulmonary bypass may decrease whole-body oxygen (O2) delivery. We predicted that during cardiopulmonary bypass, a hierarchy of regional blood flow and O2 delivery could be characterized.Methods.In 8 46.5 ± 1.2-kg pigs, fluorescent microspheres were used to determine blood flow and O2 delivery to five organ beds before and during 37°C cardiopulmonary bypass at four randomized bypass flows (1.4, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.3 L/min/m2). At completion, 18 tissue samples were obtained from the cerebral cortex (n = 4), renal cortex (n = 2), renal medulla (n = 2), pancreas (n = 3), small bowel (n = 3), and limb muscle (n = 4) for regional blood flow determination.Results.At conventional cardiopulmonary bypass flow (2.3 L/min/m2), whole-body O2 delivery was reduced by 44 ± 6% relative to the pre-cardiopulmonary bypass state (p< 0.05). Over a range of cardiopulmonary bypass flows (2.3 to 1.7 L/min/m2), brain and kidney maintained their perfusion. Blood flow and O2 delivery to both regions were reduced when the cardiopulmonary bypass flow was reduced to 1.4 L/min/m2. However, perfusion and O2 delivery to other visceral organs (pancreas, small bowel) and skeletal muscle showed pump flow dependency over the range of flows tested.Conclusions.This study characterizes the organ-specific hierarchy of blood flow and O2 distribution during cardiopulmonary bypass. These dynamics are relevant to clinical decisions for perfusion management.

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