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Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) are the two technologies to have the largest impact on diagnostic bronchoscopy in the last forty years. The AFB utilizes inherent tissue properties to identify preinvasive lesions of the central airways. The EBUS can accurately define airway invasion versus compression from tumors, guide transbronchial needle aspiration of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes, and predict, based on ultrasound morphology, whether peripheral nodules are benign or malignant. It is also extremely useful for determining the proximal and distal extent of tumors in and around the airway, and aid in surgical planning. This article will review the principles and clinical applications of these two technologies.