Lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study


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Abstract

BACKGROUNDChildhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), which may be reduced with lifestyle modifications. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize lifestyle habits and associations with MetSyn among CCS.METHODSCCS who were ≥ 10 years from diagnosis, aged > 18 years, and participating in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study completed medical and laboratory tests and a food frequency questionnaire. The Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used to classify participants with MetSyn. Anthropometric, food frequency questionnaire, and self-reported physical activity data were used to characterize lifestyle habits according to World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations. Those who met ≥ 4 of 7 recommendations were classified as having followed guidelines. Sex-stratified log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate associations between dietary/lifestyle habits and MetSyn, adjusted for age, age at cancer diagnosis, receipt of cranial radiotherapy, education, and household income.RESULTSAmong 1598 CCS (49.2% of whom were male, with a median age of 32.7 years [range, 18.9 years-60.0 years]), 31.8% met criteria for MetSyn and 27.0% followed WCRF/AICR guidelines. Females who did not follow WCRF/AICR guidelines were 2.4 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.3) and males were 2.2 times (95% confidence interval, 1.6-3.0) more likely to have MetSyn than those who followed WCRF/AICR guidelines.CONCLUSIONSAdherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle is associated with a lower risk of MetSyn among CCS. There is a need to determine whether lifestyle interventions prevent or remediate MetSyn in CCS. Cancer2014;120:2742–2750. © 2014 American Cancer Society.Survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which may be reduced with lifestyle modifications. Adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome among survivors of childhood cancer.

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