Role of PPARg2 transcription factor in thiazolidinedione-induced insulin sensitization


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Abstract

Objectives|Adipose tissue is the key regulator of energy balance, playing an active role in lipid storage and metabolism and may be a dynamic buffer to control fatty acid flux. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform-2 (PPARg2), an isoform of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has been implicated in almost all aspects of human metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The PPARg2 isoform is highly present in adipose tissue where it functions as a thrifty phenotype, which promotes adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride storage. Thiazolidinediones, antidiabetic drugs, induce insulin sensitivity by controlling adipokines. The thiazolidinediones bind with PPARg2 in adipocytes and exert an agonist effect by enhancing adipogenesis and fatty acid uptake. Thiazolidinediones stimulate PPARg2, by which they down-regulate tumour necrosis factor-α, leptin, interleukin-6 and plasminogen and also enhance insulin sensitivity. The aim of this work is to define role of PPARg2 transcription factor in thiazolidinedione-induced insulin sensitization.Key findings|The PPARg2 alters the transcription of the target gene. This altered gene transcription results in the up-regulation of insulin-sensitizing factors and down-regulation of insulin-resistant factors. The variant Pro12Ala of the PPARg2 gene is an important modulator in metabolic control in the body. Thiazolidinediones stimulate PPARg2 transcription factor by which PPARg2 binds to responsive elements located in the promoter regions of many genes and modulates their transcriptive activity. There is a strong mutual relationship between receptor binding and agonism, which is evidence of the insulin-sensitizing target of thiazolidinediones in PPARg2. This evidently increases the biological potency of the glucose-lowering effect of thiazolidinediones in vivo as well as their antidiabetic activity.Conclusions|PPARg2 transcription factor plays an important role in treatment of type-2 diabetes with thiazolidindiones. The variant Pro12Ala of the PPARg2 gene promotes the activity of thiazolidinediones in minimizing insulin resistance. Transcriptional activity of Pro12Ala variant improves the activity of insulin. Thus thiazolidinediones promote the phosphorylation of PPARg2 to induce insulin sensitivity.

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