Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with Kaposi Sarcoma during Potent Antiretroviral Therapy


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Abstract

Rapidly progressive Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions with lymphadenopathy and tissue swelling occurred in a patient during antiretroviral treatment, despite an increased CD4+ lymphocyte count and decreased HIV-1 level and KS-associated herpesvirus replication, suggesting immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Inflammation resolved coincident with decreases in the CD4+ lymphocyte count during paclitaxel treatment, whereas KS cleared only after prolonged antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy.

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