Cofactors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Entry into Primary Macrophages

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Macrophages are permissive for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates that use CCR5 for entry but are resistant to CXCR-4—dependent T cell-tropic prototype strains. M-tropic variants are critical for HIV-1 transmission, and persons who are homozygous for an inactivating mutation of CCR5 are resistant to HIV-1 in vivo. In vitro, their macrophages and lymphocytes are resistant to M-tropic strains that depend on CCR5. It is shown that CCR5-deficient macrophages are permissive for a dual-tropic isolate, 89.6, that uses CCR5, CXCR-4, and other cofactors. Entry by 89.6 into CCR5-deficient macrophages was blocked by the CXCR-4 ligand SDF and by an anti-CXCR-4 antibody. Immunoflorescence staining and reverse transcription PCR confirmed macrophage CXCR-4 expression. Thus, CXCR-4 on macrophages mediates entry of certain dual-tropic but not T cell-tropic isolates. Therefore, HIV-1 strains differ in how they utilize chemokine receptors as cofactors for entry, and the ability of a chemokine receptor to facilitate entry depends on the cell in which it is expressed.

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