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The prevalence and characteristics of persons with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections with or without evidence of mutations associated with drug resistance have not been well described.Drug-naive persons in whom HIV had been diagnosed during the previous 12 months and who did not have acquired immune deficiency syndrome were sequentially enrolled from 39 clinics and testing sites in 10 US cities during 1997-2001. Genotyping was conducted from HIV-amplification products, by automated sequencing. For specimens identified as having mutations previously associated with reduced antiretroviral-drug susceptibility, phenotypic testing was performed.Of 1311 eligible participants, 1082 (83%) were enrolled and successfully tested; 8.3% had reverse transcriptase or major protease mutations associated with reduced antiretroviral-drug susceptibility. The prevalence of these mutations was 11.6% among men who had sex with men but was only 6.1% and 4.7% among women and heterosexual men, respectively. The prevalence was 5.4% and 7.9% among African American and Hispanic participants, respectively, and was 13.0% among whites. Among persons whose sexual partners reportedly took antiretroviral medications, the prevalence was 15.2%.Depending on the characteristics of the patients tested, HIV-genotype testing prior to the initiation of therapy would identify a substantial number of infected persons with mutations associated with reduced antiretroviral-drug susceptibility.