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Myopia has become a global public health problem. High myopia is linked to pathologic myopia (PM). As the severity of myopia increases, excessive axial elongation of the globe exerts a biomechanical stretch on the posterior pole, followed by a series of retinopathy which can lead to marked visual impairment. Posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) is the only way that may have the potential to prevent the progression of axial elongation. Some scholars expressed satisfaction with the efficacy and safety of PSR. In contrast, other surgeons had negative conclusions on the outcomes for the surgery.The aims of this review are to provide an update on the current knowledge of posterior scleral reinforcement to prevent progression of high myopia and to discuss clinical trials examining the potential utility of PSR in treating this disease.We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (all years to 1 July 2019). We also conducted a gray literature search and handsearched reference lists of included studies and pertinent review articles.26 clinical trials were included. 20 trials were designed as only one eye of each patient had posterior scleral reinforcement surgery. After 3 to 5 years of follow-up, the results are very satisfactory. 6 randomized controlled trials, which have conservatively treated groups, showed statistically significant differences between the eyeball axial length progression in the study group and the control group, where surgery was not performed. Most clinical trials reached a positive influence. But the efficacy of different clinical trials varies greatly.PSR, is safe and effective to slow down myopia progression, especially for high myopia.