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Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) has a wide range of prevalence, and a standard therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and initiating factors of MRONJ and the outcomes of surgical therapy.In a prospective cohort study, all patients diagnosed with MRONJ in the Region of Skåne, in Sweden, were included. Predictor variables (comorbidity, site, stage, gender) and initiating factors (tooth extraction, periodontitis) were recorded. Surgical treatment was sequestrectomy or block resection, and the outcome variable was healing after 2 months. To estimate the prevalence, data on the use of bisphosphonate and denosumab were used.Fifty-five patients with MRONJ were identified. The prevalence of MRONJ was 0.043% among patients treated with oral bisphosphonates, 1.03% among those on intravenous bisphosphonates and 3.64% in those on high-dose denosumab. Periodontal disease preceded development of MRONJ in 41 patients. Fifty patients were treated surgically and followed up for at least 2 months. Remission or healing occurred in 80% of patients treated with sequestrectomy and in 92.5% of patients treated with block resection.The prevalence of MRONJ in Sweden is low. Periodontitis is the most common initiating factor. The outcome of treatment of MRONJ is healing in most patients treated surgically.