Three Parameters Optimizing Closed-Loop Control in Sequential Segmental Neuromuscular Stimulation

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In conventional dynamic myoplasties, the force generation is poorly controlled. This causes unnecessary fatigue of the transposed/transplanted electrically stimulated muscles and causes damage to the involved tissues. We introduced sequential segmental neuromuscular stimulation (SSNS) to reduce muscle fatigue by allowing part of the muscle to rest periodically while the other parts work. Despite this improvement, we hypothesize that fatigue could be further reduced in some applications of dynamic myoplasty if the muscles were made to contract according to need. The first necessary step is to gain appropriate control over the contractile activity of the dynamic myoplasty. Therefore, closed-loop control was tested on a sequentially stimulated neosphincter to strive for the best possible control over the amount of generated pressure. A selection of parameters was validated for optimizing control. We concluded that the frequency of corrections, the threshold for corrections, and the transition time are meaningful parameters in the controlling algorithm of the closed-loop control in a sequentially stimulated myoplasty.

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