Remote Ischemic Preconditioning and Clinical Outcomes in On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Randomized Controlled Trials

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The purpose of this article is to perform the first pooled analysis on remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) used for the improvement of clinical outcomes of patients only undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search was performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science to identify studies that described the effect of RIPC on postoperative mortality in patients only undergoing on-pump CABG. The outcomes included postoperative mortality, postoperative morbidity (including incidence of myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, stroke, acute kidney injury, and renal replacement therapy), mechanical ventilation (MV), intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), and hospital length of stay (HLOS). A total of 14 RCTs (2830 participants) were included. Our meta-analysis found that RIPC failed to reduce the postoperative mortality in patients only undergoing on-pump CABG compared with control individuals (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, [0.40, 1.64]; P = 0.55; I2 = 25%). Moreover, there were no differences in postoperative morbidity, ICU LOS, and HLOS between the two groups. However, MV in the RIPC group was shorter than that in control individuals (standard mean difference, −0.41; 95% confidence interval, [−0.80, −0.01]; P = 0.04; I2 = 73%). The present meta-analysis found that RIPC failed to improve most of clinical outcomes in patients only undergoing on-pump CABG; however, MV was reduced. Adequately powered trials are warranted to provide more evidence in the future.

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