Arterial and Pulmonary Arterial Concentrations of the Enantiomers of Bupivacaine After Epidural Injection in Elderly Patients

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Abstract

Bupivacaine HCl is a 50

50 racemic mixture of the levo [S(-)] and dex [R(+)] enantiomers. The R(+) enantiomer exhibits greater cardiac tissue binding and toxicity. To determine whether the lung exhibits selective uptake of one of the enantiomers of bupivacaine, we measured pulmonary artery and radial artery blood concentrations of the two enantiomers after a lumbar epidural injection of 20 mL of 0.75% bupivacaine in 10 elderly patients undergoing one-stage bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Significantly lower concentrations of R(+) than S(-) were noted in both pulmonary artery and arterial blood. Both enantiomers were absorbed by the lung to a similar extent within the first 5 min after epidural injection (extraction ratio approximately equal to 0.1 or 10%). Mean time of maximal concentration (Tmax) was 6 min. In 3 of the 10 patients, Tmax occurred in 1-3 min. We conclude that the lung absorbs both the R(+) and S(-) enantiomers of bupivacaine to a similar extent after epidural injection and that this is of doubtful clinical significance. This study also suggests that peak concentrations of bupivacaine may occur earlier after epidural injection in certain elderly patients than previously believed. Implications: In the first 5 min after epidural injection, approximately 10% of the local anesthetic bupivacaine was absorbed by the lung. Absorption of the two enantiomers (mirror images) of bupivacaine were similar. Lung absorption of bupivacaine is unlikely to influence local anesthetic toxicity.

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