Thoracoscopic Interruption of Patent Ductus Arteriosus Compromises Cardiopulmonary Function in Newborn Pigs

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Abstract

Interruption of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has recently been introduced into clinical practice. To study cardiovascular and pulmonary function during VATS, we treated 16 newborn pigs (weight 1421 +/- 44 g) with PDA with conventional surgical interruption (CSI; n = 7) or interruption via VATS (n = 9). Measurements of hemodynamics and gas exchange were performed before, during, and after surgery. Systemic perfusion was calculated using Fick's equation. Stress hormones (ACTH, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) were determined before and after surgery. The duration of the surgical procedure was 41 +/- 8 min for CSI and 49 +/- 9 min for VATS (mean +/- SEM). With VATS, PaO2 decreased during and after surgery (P < 0.05), whereas alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (PA-aO2) and PaCO2 were increased (P < 0.05). Compared with CSI after surgery, PaO2 with VATS was decreased (130 +/- 10 vs 171 +/- 12 mm Hg; P < 0.05). Systemic perfusion was lower during VATS (76.7% of baseline) than during CSI (107% of baseline; P < 0.05). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and right ventricular end-diastolic pressure remained unchanged with both treatments. Stress hormones were comparable between groups. We conclude that systemic perfusion and oxygenation were impaired during VATS compared with CSI. Therefore, VATS may be contraindicated in pediatric patients with minor cardiopulmonary reserve. Implications: We studied the cardiopulmonary effects of endoscopic interruption of the patent ductus arteriosus in an animal model of newborn pigs. Gas exchange and systemic perfusion were impaired compared with conventional interruption of the patent ductus arteriosus after thoracotomy.

(Anesth Analg 1998;87:1037-40)

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