Exogenous administration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) causes inflammatory lung injury in a toll-like receptor (TLR) 9-dependent manner. We investigated whether mechanical ventilation results in endogenous release of mtDNA and whether TLR9 plays a role in the pulmonary inflammatory response induced by mechanical ventilation.Wild-type and TLR9−/− C57bl/6 mice were ventilated with low (8 mL/kg) and high (32 mL/kg) tidal volumes for 4 hours. Levels of nuclear DNA and mtDNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as pulmonary concentrations of keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, were determined.Cytokine and nuclear DNA, but not mtDNA, levels were increased after mechanical ventilation with both tidal volumes. Cytokine concentrations were similar between wild-type and TLR9−/− mice. Mechanical ventilation does not result in the release of mtDNA, and TLR9 is not involved in mechanical ventilation-induced inflammation.