Periodontal inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery. However, it is unknown whether the use of local anesthetics during painful dental procedures alleviates periodontal inflammation and systemic endothelial function. This study was designed to examine whether the gingival or systemic injection of lidocaine prevents oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery in rats with intermittent periodontal inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS).METHODS:
Some rats received 1500 µg LPS injections to the gingiva during a week interval from the age of 8 to 11 weeks (LPS group). Lidocaine (3 mg/kg), LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg), LPS + lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg), and LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg, IP) groups simultaneously received gingival 1.5 or 3 mg/kg or IP 3 mg/kg injection of lidocaine on the same schedule as the gingival LPS. Isolated aortas or mandibles were subjected to the evaluation of histopathologic change, isometric force recording, reactive oxygen species, and Western immunoblotting.RESULTS:
Mean blood pressure and heart rate did not differ among the control, LPS, LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg), and lidocaine (3 mg/kg) groups. LPS application reduced acetylcholine (ACh, 10–9 to 10–5 mol/L)-induced relaxation (29% difference at ACh 3 × 10–8 mol/L, P = .01), which was restored by catalase. Gingival lidocaine (1.5 and 3 mg/kg) dose dependently prevented the endothelial dysfunction caused by LPS application (24.5%–31.1% difference at ACh 3 × 10–8 mol/L, P = .006 or .001, respectively). Similar to the gingival application, the IP injection of lidocaine (3 mg/kg) restored the ACh-induced dilation of isolated aortas from rats with the LPS application (27.5% difference at ACh 3 × 10–8 mol/L, P < .001). Levels of reactive oxygen species were double in aortas from the LPS group (P < .001), whereas the increment was abolished by polyethylene glycol-catalase, gingival lidocaine (3 mg/kg), or the combination. The LPS induced a 4-fold increase in the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the periodontal tissue (P < .001), whereas the lidocaine (3 mg/kg) coadministration partly reduced the levels. Lidocaine application also decreased the protein expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox, which was enhanced by the gingival LPS (5.6-fold increase; P < .001).CONCLUSIONS:
Lidocaine preserved the aortic endothelial function through a decrease in arterial reactive oxygen species produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and periodontal tumor necrosis factor-α levels in rats with periodontal inflammation. These results suggest the beneficial effect of the gingival application of local anesthetics on the treatment of periodontal diseases on endothelial function of systemic arteries.