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Increased oxidative stress has been linked to local anesthetic-induced nerve injury in a diabetic neuropathy (DN) rat model. The current study explores the effects of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) chloride, an NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, on bupivacaine-induced sciatic nerve injury in DN rats.A rat DN model was established through high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin injection. The model was confirmed via testing (i) blood glucose, (ii) hindpaw allodynia responses to von Frey (VF) monofilaments, (iii) paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL), and (iv) nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Bupivacaine (Bup, 0.2 mL, 5 mg/mL) was used to block the right sciatic nerve. DPI (1 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously 24 hours and 30 minutes before the sciatic block. At 24 hours after the block, NCV, various reactive oxygen species, and Caspase-3 were evaluated to determine the extent of sciatic nerve injury.The DN rat model was successfully established. Compared with the DN control group, the postblock values of VF responses (DN-Con, 16.5 ± 1.3 g; DN + Bup, 19.1 ± 1.5 g, P < .001) and PWTL significantly increased (DN-Con, 13.3 ± 1.1 seconds; DN + Bup, 14.6 ± 1.1 seconds, P = .028); the NCV of sciatic nerve was significantly reduced (DN-Con, 38.8 ± 2.4 m/s, DN + Bup, 30.5 ± 2.0 m/s, P = .003), and sciatic nerve injury (as indicated by axonal area) was more severe in the bupivacaine-treated DN group (DN-Con, 11.6 ± 0.3 μm2, DN + Bup, 7.5 ± 0.3 μm2, P < .001). In addition, DPI treatment significantly improved nerve function (VF responses, 17.3 ± 1.3 g; PWTL, 13.4 ± 1.1 seconds; NCV, 35.6 ± 3.1 m/s) and mitigated loss of axonal area (9.6 ± 0.3 μm2). Compared to the DN + Bup group (without DPI), the levels of lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides, as well as the protein expression of NOX2, NOX4, and Caspase-3, were significantly reduced in the DN + Bup + DPI group (P < .05).Subcutaneous injection of DPI appears to protect against the functional and neurohistological damage of bupivacaine-blocked sciatic nerves in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin–induced DN model.