The endothelial surface layer (ESL) regulates vascular permeability to maintain fluid homeostasis. The glycocalyx (GCX), which has a complex and fragile ultrastructure, is an important component of the ESL. Abnormalities of the GCX have been hypothesized to trigger pathological hyperpermeability. Here, we report an integrated in vivo analysis of the morphological and functional properties of the GCX in a vital organ.METHODS:
We examined the behavior of the ESL and GCX, using both electron microscopy (EM) and intravital microscopy (IVM). We also compared morphological changes in the ESL of mouse skin in a glycosidase-treated and control group. Combined approaches were also used to examine both morphology and function in a lipopolysaccharide-induced septic model and the pathophysiological features of leukocyte–endothelial interactions and in vivo vascular permeability.RESULTS:
Using IVM, we identified an illuminated part of the ESL as the GCX and confirmed our observation using morphological and biochemical means. In septic mice, we found that the GCX was thinner than in nonseptic controls in both an EM image analysis (0.98 ± 2.08 nm vs 70.68 ± 36.36 nm, P< .001) and an IVM image analysis (0.36 ± 0.15 μm vs 1.07 ± 0.39 μm, P< .001). Under septic conditions, syndecan-1, a representative core protein of the GCX, was released into the blood serum at a higher rate in septic animals (7.33 ± 3.46 ng/mL) when compared with controls (below the limit of detection, P< .001). Significant increases in leukocyte–endothelial interactions, defined as the numbers of rolling or firm-sticking leukocytes, and molecular hyperpermeability to the interstitium were also observed after GCX shedding in vivo.CONCLUSIONS:
Using IVM, we visualized an illuminated part of the ESL layer that was subsequently confirmed as the GCX using EM. Severe sepsis induced morphological degradation of the GCX, accompanied by shedding of the syndecan-1 core protein and an increase in leukocyte–endothelial interactions affecting the vascular permeability. Our in vivo model describes a new approach to deciphering the relationship between structural and functional behaviors of the GCX.