Anesthesia in Mongolia has undergone a period of major development over the past 17 years, thanks to the work of the Mongolian Society of Anesthesiologists (MSA) and the support of the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and the Australian Society of Anaesthetists. The specialty has made major advances in training and in its standing among medical specialties in Mongolia. The MSA has produced members who are leaders in the development of anesthesia as well as emergency medicine and critical care. This has been achieved by engagement between the Ministry of Health and MSA, and with inexpensive but efficient programs to educate trainees and provide continuing professional development. There is now major work being done to achieve the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery goals of safe and accessible surgery for the population in a country that faces significant challenges of remote communities with vast distances.