While standardized examinations and data from simulators and phantom models can assess knowledge and manual skills for ultrasound, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) could assess workflow understanding. We recruited 8 experts to develop an OSCE to assess workflow understanding in perioperative ultrasound. The experts used a binary grading system to score 19 graduating anesthesia residents at 6 stations. Overall average performance was 86.2%, and 3 stations had an acceptable internal reliability (Kuder–Richardson formula 20 coefficient >0.5). After refinement, this OSCE can be combined with standardized examinations and data from simulators and phantom models to assess proficiency in ultrasound.