The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, in partnership with the American College of Surgeons and the Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, has developed the Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery (ISCR), which is a national effort to disseminate best practices in perioperative care to more than 750 hospitals across multiple procedures in the next 5 years. The program will integrate evidence-based processes central to enhanced recovery and prevention of surgical site infection, venous thromboembolic events, catheter-associated urinary tract infections with socioadaptive interventions to improve surgical outcomes, patient experience, and perioperative safety culture. The objectives of this review are to evaluate the evidence supporting anesthesiology components of colorectal (CR) pathways and to develop an evidence-based CR protocol for implementation. Anesthesiology protocol components were identified through review of existing CR enhanced recovery pathways from several professional associations/societies and expert feedback. These guidelines/recommendations were supplemented by evidence made further literature searches. Anesthesiology protocol components were identified spanning the immediate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of care. Components included carbohydrate loading, reduced fasting, multimodal preanesthesia medication, antibiotic prophylaxis, blood transfusion, intraoperative fluid management/goal-directed fluid therapy, normothermia, a standardized intraoperative anesthesia pathway, and standard postoperative multimodal analgesic regimens.