Nano-scaled sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals were covalently linked onto a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric substrate chemically modified by graft polymerization with γ-methacryloxypropyl triethoxysilane (MPTS) for development of an artificial blood vessel. The weight gain of graft polymerization with poly(MPTS) on PET in benzyl alcohol containing H2O2 as an initiator increased as increasing the reaction time and finally reached a plateau value of about 3.5 wt%. The surface characterization of surface modification with poly(MPTS)-grafting was conducted by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. HAp nanocrystals of approximately 50 nm in diameter, monodispersed in pure ethanol, were coupled with alkoxysilyl groups of the poly(MPTS)-grafted PET substrate. The HAp nanocrystals were uniformly and strongly coated on the surface of the PET fabrics, although HAp particles adsorbed physically on the original PET without poly(MPTS) grafting were almost removed by ultrasonic wave treatment. More human umbilical vein endothelial cells adhered to the HAp/PET composite fabric compared with original PET after only 4 hours of initial incubation, and the same was observed on the collagen-coated PET. The coating of sintered HAp nanocrystals imparted bioactivity to the polyester substrate, which is a widely used biomedical polymer, without a coating of adhesion proteins derived from animals, such as collagen or gelatin. A prototype of an artificial blood vessel was finally fabricated by use of HAp/PET composite.