The University of Michigan Experience with Veno-Venoarterial Hybrid Mode of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

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Abstract

The veno-venoarterial (VVA) mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is defined by having both venous and arterial reinfusion cannulas. It is purposed to improve upper body oxygenation as the venous reinfusion cannula is typically placed in the upper body. We performed a single-center retrospective review to better characterize the patients placed on this mode. Adults (n = 23) were 40.4 ± 14.7 years old and were supported with ECMO for a median of 141 (97, 253) hours, with VVA support 110 (63, 179) hours. Ten (43%) were initially cannulated VVA; reasons for conversion included cardiac failure (46%), North-South syndrome (38%), and worsening hypoxia (15%). Survival was 39% and neurological complications 13%. Pediatrics (n = 8) were 13.0 ± 2.4 years old and were supported with ECMO for a median of 258 (168, 419) hours, with VVA support 131 (98, 161) hours. One (12.5%) was initially cannulated VVA; reasons for conversion were North-South syndrome (42%), cardiac failure (29%), and worsening hypoxia (29%). Survival was 71% and neurological complications 29%. We concluded that there was neither survival advantage nor complication reduction with the VVA mode in this cohort; however, VVA does have value for unique clinical situations when conventional ECMO modes do not meet support needs.

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