New semiconductor γ-ray detectors based on CdZnTe have been developed in the last few years, and they are now being widely used. Their advantages are small size and possibility of operating without cooling. In the present work, these detectors are used to measure the radiation from spent fuel assemblies in holding ponds and dry storage sites, unirradiated nuclear materials, and radioactive wastes. The results are analyzed and compared with other types of detectors. The possible applications of CdZnTe-type detectors are determined.