Moss (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) and soil samples collected in 1997–2001 are used to study the atmospheric fallout of heavy metals and radionucildes in the Southern Urals. Epithermal neutron activation analysis is used to determine the concentrations of 38 and 33 elements in soil and moss samples, respectively. Atomic-absorption spectrometry is used to determine Cu, Cd, and Pb in mosses. The specific activity of 90Sr and 137Cs is measured in soil samples. Multidimensional statistical analysis of the data obtained is used to establish and characterize various sources of contamination in the region investigated.