Leech antiplatelet protein (LAPP) is a specific inhibitor of collagen-induced human platelet aggregation and adhesion to collagen under static conditions. Recombinant LAPP (rLAPP) and L-366,763 (acetylated- Cys-Asn-Pro-Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys-NH2), a peptidyl fibrinogen receptor antagonist, were evaluated in an anesthetized baboon thrombosis model using a collagen-coated graft segment of an arteriovenous shunt to elicit thrombus formation. Animals were randomized to receive systemic intravenous administration of rLAPP (100 fig kg" 1 min" 1; n=5), L-366,763 (8.5 /tg kg" 1 min" 1; n=3), or saline (n=3). Despite complete and selective inhibition of type I collagen-induced ex vivo aggregation of platelets, rLAPP had no significant effect on the rate or the extent of '"In-labeled platelet deposition onto the collagen graft and no effect on template bleeding time. In contrast, L-366,763 completely prevented platelet deposition, maintained blood flow, and significantly prolonged bleeding time at the dosage that inhibited ex vivo aggregation in response to all agonists studied. In this study, the absence of an antithrombotic benefit of rLAPP contrasted sharply with the efficacy of the fibrinogen receptor antagonist. These results demonstrate that specific inhibition of collagen-mediated platelet aggregation alone is not sufficient to prevent platelet-dependent thrombosis in this baboon model.